Cultivation stages of white button mushroom
Mushroom growing is a little-discussed part of gardening. While it may not be as conventional as tomatoes or squash, growing mushrooms is surprisingly easy, versatile, and very beneficial. Growing white mushrooms is a good place to start as they are tasty and easy to care for. Read on for more information on growing white mushrooms and some information about white mushrooms.
To grow button mushrooms, all you need is the proper equipment and some patience!

Raw materials for mushroom production
·         Mushroom compost
·         mushroom Spawn
·         cover soil Containers, nylon, paper, etc. for product packaging
Button mushrooms require a growing environment that contains a lot of a result compost provides it. Salamat Gharch® has especial raw materials for Compost preparation including  
Wheat straw, Chicken manure, Gypsum, Sugar beet molasses, Seed or Spawn.

The amount of each material is as following:
Fresh stubble: stubble should be free of soil and fungal contamination (mold) and avoid buying stubble with high humidity. (About 60% of compost weight)
Fresh stubble: stubble should be free of soil and fungal contamination (mold) and avoid buying stubble with high humidity. (It makes up about 60% of the weight of compost.)

Poultry manure: The manure must be dry. The percentage of nitrogen in chicken manure should be about 4. Broiler chicken manure is better than egg-laying chicken manure.
Gypsum: Gypsum should be used raw in nature. The consumption rate of 4 to 10 percent of compost and gypsum must be complete powder.
 Sugar beet molasses: This substance is full of simple sugar and is very effective in starting the composting activity.
 For example, the general formula for preparing 10,000 kg of compost with a moisture content of 70-74% includes the following:
Wheat stubble 6000 kg Chicken manure 350 kg Sugar beet molasses 120 kg Hydrated calcium sulfate (gypsum) 400 kg

Composting includes 2 phases:
phase one:
·         Soaking straw and stubble (before mixing the ingredients, we first soak the stubble for 1 to 2 days)
·         The composition of compost ingredients with each other with specific amounts
·         Entering the bunker (places where oxygen enters the compost mass through the tunnel floor).
 Phase one lasts for 14 days.

The second phase:
·         Compost prepared from phase one enters tunnels and reaches a height of about 1.60 cm 1.80 cm is placed on top of each other and using special fans for pasteurization for 8 hours to 11 hours, we slowly bring the temperature from 50 degrees Celsius to 59 degrees and keep it at this temperature and after 11 hours We keep it for 4 to 6 days (mostly 5 days) at a temperature of 48 degrees Celsius until the so-called compost becomes sweet.
·         After the pasteurization tunnel, the compost enters the counting hall and for 1% of the weight of the compost is done.
·         Using F1 seeds and companies that have strong production monitoring laboratories is very necessary.
·         Compost purchased from compost producing companies is transported in a standard way and sent to edible mushroom cultivation units in the shortest possible time and with less temperature stress.

Covering soil
Covering soil should have the following general characteristics:
•         High water holding capacity
•         Acidity (PH) about 7.5
•         Almost light texture
•         Do not have undecayed organic matter.
•         Do not have pollution. Peat soil is the best covering soil, but since its pH is low, around 4.5, we use gypsum to adjust the pH and calcium level of the mushroom.
The soil is prepared by the steam tunnel without the use of poisons and chemicals and is completely hygienic.
Stages of cultivation of edible mushrooms
 The halls of a mushroom cultivation unit are separate and connected by a corridor They are connected and the area of each hall is about 100 to 150 square meters, each of the halls of this complex has an area of 120 square meters with a height of 5 meters and two rows of galvanized and aluminum floors.
here are 2 rows of floors in each hall and 6 floors in each row.
The mushroom cultivation period is 55 to 60 days from the time the compost arrives, and if inoculated compost is used (compost that has passed the spawn run period) it is about 40 to 45 days. In other words, cultivation can be done 8 times in one year.
Here at Salamat Gharch® in the hot seasons of the year, from compost without the span period and in the cold seasons of the year, from the compost that has passed the span period (the so-called phase III). It is used and 7 periods of alternating cultivation are created during a year.
It is obvious that the mushroom cultivation halls are cultivated with a time interval and with a planned interval to have a crop of mushrooms alternately throughout the year.
Performance rate
The yield depends on many factors such as the quality of the compost, the quality of the cover soil, and the conditions of the hall. In the health complex, the one-year yield is about 28% of the weight of the compost inside each hall.
For example, the:
The amount of compost inside a hall in one period: 26000 Kg
 Production efficiency in each hall in each period: 28%
The number of mushrooms produced in one hall in one period: 7280 Kg
Kg 26000*28% Kg= 7280

Cultivation stages of white button mushroom
Spawn run (vegetative growth)
Explanation: compost if it has not passed the inoculation period and has not passed the so-called span run period.
At the time of arrival, we bring the temperature of the compost to the optimal level of 25 degrees Celsius because the temperature may be higher or lower along the way.
The humidity level of the hall is between 85% and 95%. CO2 amount around 3000 PPM.
 We level all the surfaces of the beds in a uniform and smooth manner with the appropriate compaction board machine.
 For 14 to 17 days, the spawn run period is passed, and the entire surface and inside of the compost is accumulated from mycelium, and the compost turns from dark brown to white.


Fertilizer or case run
 After the compost has completely gone through the spawning stage, it enters the soiling stage become factors of Fertilizing stage:
·         The temperature is 24 degrees Celsius
·         Humidity 85%
·         CO2: 3500 ppm
·         Length of course = depending on the use of CAC and RAF methods
Choosing ruffling or CAC-ing
Ruffling is the operation of leveling and sanding after soil excavation, and the CAC-ing method is mainly used in industrial units. After using fertilizer, the CAC-ing method is used for one day.
This means that we mix a quantity of compost with cover soil in the amount of 200 to 300 grams per square meter with the cover soil and cover it again using the motion CAC-ing  machine uniformly and paying attention to the micro-microclimate without compressing the soil on the surface of the beds.

Recovery period
In the time after CAC-ing,  the recovery period begins so that the mycelium threads surround the soil texture, and during the recovery period, all factors of temperature, CO2, and humidity must be uniform, because any stress (fluctuation) in the factors causes the quality of the product to decrease.
·         CO2 about 3500 to 4000 per PPM unit
·         Humidity 85 to 90 percent
·         Temperature 26 degrees Celsius
 This course takes about 2 to 4 days.

 After a good recovery, we are ready for the aeration stage. In the aeration stage, the amount of ventilation is increased, so that all the myceliums become hyphae and the hyphae become knots, and after the formation of multi-media cells or small pinheads. We see at the substrate level.
·         Ambient temperature of 18 degrees Celsius
·         Ambient temperature of 16 degrees Celsius
·         CO2 900 to 1200 PPM
·         Humidity 75% to 80%
The duration of aeration is 10 days.

Picking or flush
 1 After 10 days, the pinheads will turn into pea mushrooms. Now it's time to water to produce a product with better quality and more quantity. First picking takes about 5 days. Second pickingو  Third picking
In the entire reproductive stage of the mushroom, all factors are uniform, such as CO2 and humidity, room temperature.
Cooking out stage
When the third layer is harvested, the compost is prone to disease growth. We bring the temperature of the room to about 80-90 degrees Celsius with the steam boiler and steam valve installed in each salon and keep it at this temperature for 12 hours until all the parasites and microbes are pasteurized and then After the salon cools down, we empty the salon and wash it. This method is used in the health complex instead of using poisons and disinfectant.

After emptying, the compost is stored in a place far from the breeding unit, and after passing a certain period of time, it is crushed by grinding wheels and adding other materials such as rice bran, perlite (water absorbent) and some agricultural soil according to the formula calculated for the type of plant in question. It is processed and used as packaging for apartment flowers, greenhouse products, and crops.